VDisk Kernel Option? Repair Immediately

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    In the past week, some of our readers ran into a bug with the ramdisk kernel option. This problem can arise for several reasons. Let’s discuss it now. The initial virtual disk (initrd) is actually the initial root filesystem, which experts say is mounted before the actual root filesystem is available for purchase. The kernel then mounts this awesome initrd as part of this special two-step boot process to load the web template modules in order to open the actual file operating systems and access the original root filesystem.

    You can see the use of a block RAM disk device with Linux——————————————-Sodaretention:1. Overview2) Kernel command line parameters3) using “rdev -r”4) An example of creating a compressed RAM disk1. Overview————A RAM disk driver is one way to use the main memory of the system, just like any other block device. Thisrequired for initrd, the initial filesystem where you must load modulespartly for root access (see documentation / admin guide / initrd.rst filesystem). It cancan also be chosen for a temporary file system to work in cryptography, since the contentare deleted on reboot.The RAM disk dynamically expands when space is required. He carries it with himRAM barrier cover. Keloid pad driver uses it like dirtywhich the subsystem of virtual machines usually does not use for their subsequent recovery.Empty RAM supports up to 16 RAM by default and may be attempted to be reconfiguredMaintain unlimited RAM disks (at your own risk). Just changeconfiguration symbol BLK_DEV_RAM_COUNT block driver configuration menuand (re) build each core.To useTo use a RAM CD or DVD with your system, run ‘./MAKEDEV ram’ by typing / dev. usePhone book. All RAM devices are major 1 combined with leading minor 0for the number of / dev / ram0, etc. When used, modern popcorn kernels use / dev / ram0 for initrd.Awesome RAM Disk also has the ability to load compressed RAM images,so you can compress more programs onto a medium installation disc, orEmergency CD.2) parameters———————————2a) Kernel command line optionsramdisk_size = N==============This parameter tells the RAM disk driver, which is responsible for setting the RAM for disks of size N k. itStandard 4096 (4MB).2b) module parametersrd_non=====Methods / dev / ramX created.max_part========The maximum number of sections.size_rd=======See Ramdisk_size.3) using “rdev -r”——————The use of a word (two bytes) that puts “rdev -r” in the entire kernel image isin the following way. Bad 11 bits (0 -> 10) define the offset (in 1 exact blocks) from the top. fixedup to 2 MB (2 ^ 11), where the RAM disk (of that size) is most important. Little14 indicates that the RAM disk shouldis to be loaded, and word 15 indicates whether the sequence containsHint / wait is very important before trying to read a virtual disk. Becauseramdisk is dynamically expanded when data is considered to be written, this is a completely new fieldNo size required. Bits 11 on the way to 13 are not currently used and can also be zero.These statistics are not magic secrets, the fact is below: vu./arch/x86/kernel/setup.RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK c: #define 0x07FF./arch/x86/kernel/setup.c:#define RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG 0x8000./arch/x86/kernel/setup.c:#define RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG 0x4000Consider a setup with two typical floppy disks in which you haveDrown on the first disk and you already have a RAM disk image in your garage to use on disk # 2.Hence, you want to organize bits 0 through 13 as zero, which means that your virtual disk isstarts again at 0KB offset due to the beginning of the disk.Equivalent to descriptor string: “ramdisk_start = 0″You want aspect 14 to indicate that the correct RAM disk must be loaded.Command line equivalent: “load_ramdisk = 1″You want bit 15 to be single to indicate that you want the request / clvisha was pressed.Order for the possibility of exchanging floppy disks.Command line equivalent: “prompt_ramdisk = 1″Together 2 ^ 15 + 2 ^ 14 0 + = 49152 because of the word rdev.To make a DVD from a set, you need to do the following:/ usr / src / Linux # Cat Arch / x86 / boot / zImage> / dev / fd0/ Usr / src / linux # rdev / dev / fd0 / dev / fd0/ usr / SRC / Linux # rdev -r / dev / fd0 49152If someone has created a boot floppy that LILO has, they will use the one listed here:append = “ramdisk_start = 0 load_ramdisk = 1 prompt_ramdisk = 1″Since the default start = two and the default hint = first, you can use:add = “load_ramdisk = 1″4) An example of creating a compressed virtual disk————————————————– ——–To create a virtual disk image, you will need a replacement device to keep it from getting clogged.build it. It could be the RAM disk device itself, orAn unused hard disk partition (for example, when you unmount a swap partition). HenceWe are using a RAM disk as an example, hard disk “/ dev / ram0”.NOTE. This method should be based on less than 8 MB. Unable to execute on computer.random access memory. If you are using a new partition The hard drive is most likely / dev / ram0, that’s all.The limitation may not apply.a) Decide on the size of the computer’s RAM that you want. Say it MB for example. Create it by writing a RAM disk to a specific device. (This step is probably currently may also be needed in the future.) Preferably set to zero Area (especially towards hard drives) to maximize compression for unused barriers of the image you may be about to create.dd if = / dev / zero of = / dev / ram0 bs = 1k Make count = 2048b) the file system available on it. For this example say ext2fs.mke2fs -vm0 / dev / ram0 2048c) Mount it, copy all the files you want in this view (ex: / etc / * / dev / * …) So take it apart again.d) Compress the information about the RAM disk. Compression amount will take up almost 50% of the space occupied by the files. Unused The space in RAM will undoubtedly almost completely compress the disk.dd si = / dev / ram0 bs = 1k count = 2048 | gzip -v9> /tmp/ram_image.Put gze) the kernel on your current floppydd if = zImage from = / dev / fd0 bs = 1kf) Place the RAM disk image on a floppy disk as a kernel. Usinggive offset it is a little more to be able to use the kernel so you can easily define the other kernel (possibly larger) on the same floppy, finally without overlapping RAM disk image. 4000KB offset for core approximately 350KB per will make the size reasonable. Make sure the offset + size of the ram_image of.gz. is an no more than the total storage of your vulnerability (typically 1440 KB).dd if = / tmp / ram_image.gz of = / dev / fd0 bs = 1k seek = 400g) Use “rdev” to set the boot device, RAM disk offset, snapshot, etc. For prompt_ramdisk = 1, load_ramdisk = 1, ramdisk_start = 400 you must save 2 ^ 15 + 2 ^ 14 + 4000 49552 =. / dev / fd0rdev / dev / fd0rdev -r / dev / fd0 49552That’s all. However, your compressed boot / root RAM disk is small. A littleUsers may want to combine calculations (d) and (f) using string a.————————————————– ————————Paul Gortmaker 12/95Changelog:———-10.22.04: Update to provide “Changes” command in string parameters, remove it.outdated links, general cleaning.James Nelson ([email protected])12-95: original document

    Can the kernel swap to a ramdisk?

    Virtual disks are not interchangeable and you have no way to resize them. To create the corresponding virtual disk, you need to add some values ​​to the grub file.

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